PERIOD SYNTAX AND SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

 Final proposition

 

The final proposition, wich   expresses the purpose at which the verb of the regent proposition is aimed,  in Eurizian can be expressed in two ways.

 

Explicit form. In all cases, the following form may be used:

⮚ ut + subject in the nominative case + verb in the indicative mode for the positive final proposition.

example: ego mittebi librum ad te ut tu leges id (I will send you the book so that you read it)

⮚ ut + subject in the nominative case + non+ verb in the indicative mode  for the negative final proposition;

example: ego monevi te ut tu non errabas = I warned you so that you  would not make a mistake

The following rules apply for the use of tenses:

  • if in the main sentence the verb is in the past tense (imperfect or perfect), in the subordinate sentence the verb is imperfect;
  • if in the main sentence the verb is in the present or future tense, in the subordinate sentence the verb is in the present tense.

In negative sentences 'ut non' may be replaced by “ne”:

example: ego monevi te ne tu errabas = I warned you so that you would not make a mistake.

 

Implicit form. If the subject of the main proposition is the same as the subject of the subordinate proposition , the following form can also be used:

⮚ Ad + verb in the gerund mode: for the positive final proposition.

Example: ego venivi ad Romam ad videndo eam = I came to Rome to see her

⮚ Ad non + verb in the gerund: for the negative final proposition;

Example: Ego discedevi antea e Romam ad non videndo eam : I left Rome earlier not to see her

the final can have incidental value in expressions such as:

ut ita ego dice = so to say

ut vere ego dice = to be honest

ut ego non dice = not to mention

ut ego dice paucum = in short.

 

 Objective declarative proposition

 

Objective propositions represent one of the three functions a declarative proposition can have (the others being the subjective and ephexegetics) and are so called because they act as the object complement of the regent verb. Two forms are possible in Eurizian:

 

Explicit form

 - Quod + subject in the nominative case + verb in the indicative mode; examples:

Consule omittevit quod militei fugivint -> The consul omitted that the soldiers had fled

Ego puta quod inimicoi pugnant strenue -> I believe that enemies fight valiantly

Magistrum putat quod nos sumus diligenti -> The master believes that we are diligent

 

Implicit form

  - Subject in the complementary case + Verb in the infinitive;

Consule omettevit milites fugivisse-> The consul omitted that the soldiers had fled

Ego puta inimicos pugnare strenue -> I believe that enemies fight valiantly

Magistrum putat nes essere diligenti -> The master believes that we are diligent

 

 To translate the infinitive, you must take into account that:

- The present infinitive expresses contemporaneity, so in English  we translate it with a tense that makes the action of the subordinate  proposition take place at the same time as the action of the regent proposition.

- The perfect infinitive expresses anteriority, so in English we translate it with a tense that makes the action of the subordinate proposition unfold before the action of the regent proposition.

- The future infinitive expresses posteriority, so in English we translate it with a tense that makes the action of the subordinate proposition unfold after the action of the regent proposition.

 

Thus, to resume:

 

- if the action of the subordinate proposition is simultaneous to that of the regent proposition, the present infinitive is used. Example:

 The master believes (now) that we are diligent (now) -> Magistrum putat nes essere diligenti.

- if the action of the subordinate proposition is prior to that of the regent proposition, the past infinitive is used. Example : Carlo says (now) that you did not deliver the book (before) -> Karolo dicet Te non reddivisse librum;

- if the action of the subordinate proposition  is posterior to that of the regent proposition , the future infinitive is used. Example:

 Marco says (now) that he will not deliver (later) any book -> Marco dicet se essere reddeturi nulli librum.

 

  Subjective Declarative Proposition

 

Subjective proposition serves as the subject of the regent verb. Again, two forms are possible.

 

Explicit form

  - Quod + subject in the nominative case + verb in the indicative mode; the impersonal verb of the regent proposition always has the neuter prename “Id” as subject. Example:

 Id oportet quod tu dices veritatem -> It is necessary that you tell the truth.

 

Implicit form

 - Subject in the complementary case + Verb in the infinitive case; Also in this case the impersonal verb of the regent proposition has “Id” as subject.

 Id oportet te dicere veritatem -> It is necessary that you tell the truth.

 

NOTE: It is necessary, we can translate it in two ways : Id oportet, or id est necesse.

 

 With regard to the use of the infinitive, the same rules apply as we have seen with regard to the objective declarative proposition.

 

Ephexegetics declarative proposition

 

This is a complementary or substantive proposition. Its function is to clarify or explain an element contained in the regent proposition (demonstrative pronoun or adjective followed by a noun, noun derived from a verb indicating opinion, belief, hope or a locution or even an adverb).

 

Again, two forms are possible in Eurizian: explicit form and implicit form.

 

Explicit form

 It is translated as: Quod + subject in the nominative case  + verb in the indicative

 Example: everyone thinks the same thing, that without friendship life is useless -> Omnei putant idem, quod sine amicitiam vita est vani.

 

Implicit form

 It is translated with the subject in the complementary case and the verb in the infinitive mode

Example: everyone thinks the same thing, that without friendship life is useless -> Omnei putant idem, sine amicitiam vitam esse vani.

 

For the use of the infinitive tenses, what has already been seen regarding objective and subjective declaratives applies.

 

Nominal use of the infinitive

 

The infinitive, like a noun, can be used:

 

1) as subject->  in this case, the simple infinitive is used.

Example: mentire est turpi -> lying is shameful

 

2) As object complement: also in this case the simple infinitive is used.

Example: ego desidera bene vivere -> desidero vivere bene.

 

 The infinitive can also take on the functions of other complements. In this case in Eurizian, the gerund is used, as follows.

  1. a) Specification complement (genitive) -> de + gerund :

Necessitate de tacendo -> the need to be silent.

 

  1. b) Term complement (dative) -> ad + gerund:

Ego vovebi me ad scribendo -> I will dedicate myself to writing.

 

  1. c) End complement -> ad + gerund;

Viro nati ad tacendo -> Man born to be silent.

 

  1. d) Complement of means or instrument-> gerund without preposition;

oni discet errando -> One learns by erring.

 

  1. e) Deprivation -> sine + gerund;

sine loquendo -> without speaking

 

 Hypothetical Period

The hypothetical period consists of a conditional proposition held by a main proposition.

The main proposition is called apòdosi, while the conditional phrase is called pròtasi and is introduced by si ('if') in affirmatives, and by nisi ('if not') in negatives.

There are three types of hypothetical period:

 

  • period of objectivity, when the pròtase presents a real hypothesis;

In this case in Eurizian, the verb of the protasis is always expressed exclusively in the present indicative. The form is:

 Si + subject to the nominative case+ present indicative verb

Whereas the verb of the apodosis can be either present indicative or future indicative. The form is:

 subject + future or present indicative

Example: Si is edet nimis, is fiebit obesi -> if he eats too much, he will become fat

 

  • Period of possibility, when the pronoun concerns an event that could occur;

In this case in Eurizian, the verb of the protasis is always expressed exclusively in the imperfect indicative. The form is:

Si + subject in the nominative case+ imperfect indicative verb

Whereas the verb of the apodosis must be expressed in the present conditional tense. The form is:

 subject + present conditional verb. Example:

Si tu laborabas nimis, tu defetisceres -> if you worked too hard, you would get tired.

 

  • Period of unreality, when both pròtasi and apòdosi describe facts that cannot happen.

In this case in Eurizian, the verb of the protasis is always expressed exclusively in the perfect indicative. The form is:

Si + subject to the nominative case + perfect indicative verb

Whereas the verb of the apodosis must be expressed in the conditional past tense

subject + conditional past tense verb. Example:

Si nos conquivimus eum, nos invenivissemus eum -> if we had looked for him, we would have found him

 

Temporal proposition

The temporal proposition is a subordinate sentence expressing a time situation to which a regent period is attached.

It is introduced by temporal prepositions followed by the verb in the indicative; in particular:

 

  • Cum is equivalent to when;
  • Dum means while;
  • antequam and priusquam translate as 'before' (orsooner than)
  • postquam means 'after' or 'since'
  • The conjunction donec meaning "until " “or as long as”
  • The conjunction quamdiu mean "for as long as", and indicate equality of duration between the action of the regent period and that of the temporal period.
  • cum primum and simul ac mean "as soon as", "as soon as that", "as". In this case the action is coincident with or immediately preceding the action of the regent period.

 

Example: When Caesar came to Gaul, he devastated everything -> Cum Caesar venivit in Galliam devastavit omnia

 

Concessive Proposition

 

A concessive proposition is a subordinate sentence expressing a circumstance in spite of which what is expressed in the regent sentence occurs.

It is translated by the conjunctions quamquam, etsi, tametsi, quamvis (although, in spite of, etc.) followed by the verb in the indicative.

Example: Etsi ego sum defatigati, ego non vole quiescere -> although I am tired, I do not want to sleep.

 

Causal proposition

 

The causal proposition is a subordinate expressing the cause of the action expressed in its regent.

It is governed by the conjunctions quia, quoniam or the prepositional phrase propterea quod, all translatable as 'since', 'because', 'as' followed by the indicative verb.

Example: Marco non telefonavit te quia tu essebas iam edocti -> Marco did not telephone you because you were already informed

 

Consecutive Proposition

 

The consecutive proposition is a subordinate sentence that expresses the consequence of what is indicated in the regent period.

In Eurizian they are introduced by the conjunction “ut”  if positive, otherwise by “ut non” (ut nemo, ut nullus, ut nihil, ut numquam) if negative.

In the regent of the consecutive period, one can find:

  • ita, sic, 'so';
  • tam (in front of adjectives and adverbs), tanto (in front of adjectives and adverbs in the comparative degree), tantum (in front of verbs): "so much";
  • tanti, "so many", "so big", "so great";
  • adeo "to such an extent";
  • tali, "such";
  • eiusmodi, "of such a kind";
  • tot, "many".

The verb must always be expressed in the indicative mode.

Example: Nemo est ita dementi ut is cupet sui malum ->  No one is so mad as to desire his own evil->

 

 Interrogative proposition

 

The interrogative proposition may be an independent sentence (direct interrogatives) or a subordinate sentence (indirect interrogatives). Both can be disjunctive.

Direct interrogatives sentences have the verb in the indicative mode and are introduced by:

  • interrogative pronouns; Quisnam voleret bellum? -> who would want war?
  • interrogative adjectives; quali librum tu voles legere? -> which book do you want to read?
  • interrogative adverbs; Quo tu vades? -> where are you going?
  • interrogative particles:
  • the particle Ecne for a real question. Example: Ecne tu es defatigati? -> are you tired?
  • the particle nonne for a rhetorical question from which an affirmative answer is expected,

example: nonne cane est simili as lupo? -> Is not the dog similar to the wolf?

  • the particle num for a rhetorical question from which a negative answer is expected. Example: Num tu facevis huc ? = did you perhaps do this? (certainly not)

 

Indirect interrogatives are subordinate sentences, the regent of which contains a verb or an expression expressing a request or question . They have the verb in the indicative mode and can be introduced by:

  • interrogative pronouns;
  • interrogative adjectives;
  • interrogative adverbs;

example: dices ad me quid tu ageturi es -> tell me what you are going to do

  • interrogative particles and in particular

o the particle si (=if) indifferently whether one expects an uncertain answer or a negative answer; ego nesci si tu dices veritatem -> I don't know whether you are telling the truth;

 

Both direct and indirect interrogatives can be disjunctive, i.e. express two alternative possibilities. These are always introduced by two elements:

utrum ......an example: Utrum tu es servo an liberi viro? -> Are you a servant or a free man?

If the second member is expressed by 'or not', it is translated in eurizian as “an non”.

The affirmative answer to interrogatives is:

ies = yes (contraction of the Latin expression 'ita est')

The negative answer to interrogatives is:

no = no

 

Comparative proposition

 

The comparative proposition is the circumstantial subordinate that performs the function of the comparative complement in relation. The verb is always in the indicative mode.

Comparative sentences of equality

Real comparative sentences of equality are introduced by the following correlative particles: tam... quam, tantus... quantus, tantum... quantum, tanto... quanto, tamquam... sic, ita... sicut, talis... qualis, tot... quot, sicut... eodem modo, eo... quo (with comparatives of adjectives and adverbs)

Example: Sicut senectute sequet adulescentiam, in eodem modo morte sequet senectutem -> just as old age follows adolescence, so death follows old age.

 

The comparatives of majority and minority

In the regent propositions of the comparative sentences  of majority and minority there is an adjective or adverb in the comparative degree or a verb indicating a comparison. The proposition constituting the second comparative term is introduced by quam.

Propositions may be introduced by maior quam ut... (too big for...) or maior quam, potius quam (rather than), magis quam...(more than) ; citius quam..., (more quickly than) ; saepius quam..., (more often than)...

Hypothetical comparatives

Hypothetical comparative propositions, introduced in English by the particles 'as if”, “almost as” are rendered in Eurizian by velut si, aeque ac si, non secus ac si (not otherwise than if), or simply by quasi. They also present the verb in the indicative mode and the tenses typical of the hypothetical period of the 3rd type (imperfect and perfect).

" impii civei, quasi ili vincevint, inter se congratulabant."

"The wicked citizens congratulated each other, as if they had won."