DERIVATION RULES FOR NOUNS

 

Derivation rules from Latin for nouns

 

To obtain a given Eurizian noun, we look up the corresponding Latin noun in the English-Latin dictionary. In the Latin dictionary, nouns are indicated by giving the Latin noun in nominative case in full (other than the Eurizian nominative) followed by the final ending of the genitive and the gender (masculine, feminine or neuter abbreviated (m. for masculine, f. for feminine and n. for neuter). Example: if we look up “rose” in the dictionary, we find: rosa, ae, f. where rosa is the nominative, rosae the genitive and f. stands for feminine. What is of interest for the purposes of derivation is the genitive that identifies the Latin declension. In the case of the example, we are interested in the genitive rosae which tells us that the noun belongs to the Latin first declension. In general, the five cases described below can therefore occur.

1) The noun belongs to the Latin first declension (genitive in -ae).  we remove -ae from the singular genitive case and we put -a as a termination; thus we obtain a noun of the Eurizian first declension (nominative in -a).

Example: Eglish  rose -> in the English-Latin dictionary we find rosa, ae f. . From the Latin genitive rosae, removing the ending in -ae gives the root ros-. If we add the ending -a, we obtain the Eurizian singular nominative rosa. Since Eurizian grammar stipulates that the names of plants and flowers are always feminine, the gender in this case of the Eurizian noun will be feminine. In conclusion, in the Eurizian vocabulary we would find: rosa, f. Since the nominative ends in -a, this is a noun of the Eurizian first declension that follows the declension rules explained in section A.2.2.

2) The noun belongs to the Latin second declension (genitive in -i). We remove -i from the singular genitive and we put -o as the ending; we thus obtain a noun of the second Eurizian declension (nominative in -o).

Example: English wolf -> in the English-Latin dictionary we find lupus, i m. . From the Latin genitive lupi, removing the ending in -i gives the root lup-. Adding the ending -o gives the Eurizian singular nominative lupo. Since Eurizian grammar stipulates that nouns of masculine animals are always masculine, the gender of the noun wolf in Eurizian will be masculine. In conclusion, in the Eurizian vocabulary we would find: lupo, m. Since the nominative ends in -o, this is a noun of the second Eurizian declension that follows the declension rules explained in section A.2.2.

3) The noun belongs to the Latin third declension (genitive in -is). We remove - is from the singular genitive and we put -e as the ending; we thus obtain a noun of the third Eurizian declension (nominative in -e).

Example: English heart -> in the English-Latin dictionary we find cor, cordis n. . From the Latin genitive cordis, removing the ending in -is gives the root cord-. Adding the ending -e gives the Eurizian singular nominative corde. Since Eurizian grammar stipulates that nouns of objects are always neuter, the gender of the noun corde in Eurizian will be neuter. In conclusion, in the Eurizian vocabulary we would find: corde, n. Since the nominative ends in -e, this is a noun of the third Eurizian declension that follows the declension rules explained in section A.2.2.

4) The noun belongs to the Latin fourth declension (genitive in -us). We remove -us from the singular genitive and put -o as the ending; we thus obtain a noun of the second Eurizian declension (nominative in -o).

Example: English  fruit -> in the Enlish-Latin dictionary we find fructus, us m. . From the Latin genitive fructus by removing the ending in -us we obtain the root fruct-. If we add the ending -o we obtain the Eurizian singular nominative fructo. Since Eurizian grammar stipulates that nouns of objects are always neuter, the gender of the noun fructo in Eurizian will be neuter. In conclusion, in the Eurizian vocabulary we would find: fructo, n. Since the nominative ends in -o, this is a noun of the second Eurizian declension that follows the declension rules explained in section A.2.2.

5) The noun belongs to the Latin fifth declension (genitive in -ei). We remove - ei from the singular genitive and put -e as the ending; we thus obtain a noun of the third Eurizian declension (nominative in -e).

Example: English day -> in the English-Latin dictionary we find dies, ei m. . From the Latin genitive diei, removing the ending in -ei gives the root di-. Adding the ending -e gives the Eurizian singular nominative die. Since Eurizian grammar dictates that nouns of objects are always neuter, the gender of the noun die in Eurizian will be neuter. In conclusion, in the Eurizian vocabulary we would find: die, n. Since the nominative ends in -e, this is a noun of the third Eurizian declension that follows the declension rules explained in section A.2.2.

 

Derivation from compound Latin nouns

In the case of compound Latin nouns, the corresponding Eurizian noun is obtained in the following way:

1) We consider the two original words joined together;

2) We consider the word obtained from the union as belonging to the latin declension of the second word,

3) The rules of noun derivation are applied to the noun obtained in step 2.

 

Examples:

ius iurandum (Latin) -> iusiurando (Eurizian); noun of the second declension. Meaning: oath;

ros marinus (Latin) -> rosmarino (Eurizian); noun of the second declension. Meaning: rosemary;

agri cultura (Latin) -> agricultura (Eurizian); noun of the first declension. Meaning: agriculture;

aquae ductus (Latin) -> aquaedocto (Eurizian); noun of the second declension. Meaning: aqueduct;

terrae motus (Latin) -> terraemoto (Eurizian); noun of the second declension. Meaning: earthquake.

 

Derivation from indeclinable Latin nouns

The noun instar, indeclinable in Latin, is used in Eurizian as a translation of the expression 'in the guise of', 'in the likeness of'. always followed by the noun in the complementative case: instar armam -> in the guise of a weapon.

The indeclinable Latin noun mane (morning), in Eurizian becomes mane, declinable noun of the third eurizian declension (mane, manem, manei, manes) with the same meaning: morning;

the Latin indeclinable nouns pessum and venum pass unchanged into Eurizian solely as translations of the expressions 'in ruin' -> in Eurizian “in pessum” and 'for sale' -> in Eurizian “in venum”; “ire in pessum” -> to go to ruin.

Other Latin indeclinable or defective nouns, apart from those discussed in this paragraph, are not considered.

 

Particular nouns derived from Latin

 

For nouns that in Latin have only the plural (pluralia tantum), the singular form is also used in Eurizian:

- wealth: (Latin) divitiae, divitiarum -> (Eurizian) divitia (nominative), divitiam (complementative);  

- Athens: (Latin) Athenae, Athenarum -> (Eurizian) Athena (nominative), Athenam: (complementative);

delight: (Latin) deliciae, deliciarum -> (Eurizian) delicia (nominative), deliciam (complementative);

- truce: (Latin) indutiae, indutiarum -> (Eurizian) indutia (nominative), indutiam (complementative);

snare: (Latin) insidiae, insidiarum -> (Eurizian) insidia (moninative), insidiam (complementative)

- threat: (Latin) minae, minarum -> (Eurizian) mina (nominative), minam (complementative)

- wedding: (Latin) nuptiae, nuptiarum -> (Eurizian) nuptia (nominative), nuptiam (complementary).

 

Unlike Latin, in Eurizian there are no terms that take on a different meaning depending on whether they are used in the singular or plural form. That is why in Eurizian “abundance” is translated according to the regular pattern of the first declension, as follows:

 

copia (singular nominative); copiam (singular complementative) 

copiae  (plural nominative); copias  (plural complementative).

 

The noun troop is translated as follows:

turma (singular nominative); turmam (singular complementative) 

turmae (plural nominative); turmas (plural complementative).

 

In Eurizian letter of the alphabet is translated as follows:

littera (singular nominative), litteram (singular complementative);

litterae (plural nominative), litteras (plural complementative).

 

The noun literature is translated as:

litteratura (singular nominative), litteraturam (singular complementative);

litteraturae (plural nominative), litteraturas (plural complementative).

 

The noun vigil is translated as:

vigilia (singular nominative), vigiliam (singular complementative);

vigiliae (plural nominative); vigilias (plural complementative).

 

The noun sentinel is translated as:

excubitore (singular nominative), excubitorem (singular complementative);

excubitorei (plural nominative) ; excubitores (plural complementative).

 

In Eurizian, the term viscus also has the singular and is translated as:

exto (singular nominative), extum (singular complementative);

extoi (plural nominative) ; extos (plural complementative).

 

The only term that in Eurizian takes on a different meaning depending on whether it is used in the singular or plural form is the noun “good”. In fact, good is translated as:

bono: the good (nominative); bonum: the good (complementative);

 

while goods understood as substances, riches, are translated as:

bonoi: goods, substances (nominative); bonos: goods, substances (complementative);

 

In contrast to Latin, in Euryatian we also have that:

the castle is translated as: castro (nom. sing), castrum ( compl. sing) and castroi (nom. plu), castros (compl. plu).

 

 Camp is translated as: castra (nom. sing.) , castram (compl. sing.) and castrae (nom. plu), castras (compl.plu).

 Aid, help is translated as: auxilio (nom. sing), auxilium (compl. sing) and auxilioi (nom. plu), auxilios (compl.plu).

   

 Auxiliary troops is translated as auxiliari agmine (nom. sing), auxiliari agminem (compl.sing) and auxiliari agminei (nom. plu), auxiliari agmines (compl.plu).

 

English noun virus (pathogenic agent) is translated in Eurizian by virio (nom. sing.), virium (compl.sing.), virioi (nom. plu), virios (compl. plural). Due to the principle of disambiguity, the Latin term virus should not be considered so as not to create confusion with vir, viri (man).

 

Man (human being of the male gender) is translated as: viro (nom. sing), virum (compl. sing) and viroi (nom. plu), viros (compl.plu), whereas man, understood as an individual belonging to the human species (male or female), is translated as homine (of neutral gender) and follows the third declension of Eurizian.

 

The English word force, power, strenght (lat. vis, roboris) is translated as vire in the nominative singular, virei in the nominative plural, virem in the complementative singular and vires in the complementative plural.

 

City walls in Eurizian have singular and plural:

moene: (singular nominative) ; moenem: (singular complementative)

moenei: (plural nominative ); moenes: (plural complementative)

 

in the singular is used to indicate a section of wall; in the plural, it is used to indicate all the walls of the city.

 

Alps is also used in Eurizian in the plural only: Alpei: the Alps (nominative); Alpes: the Alps (complementative).

 

Unlike in Latin, in Eurizian we have that:

 

English prison translates as: carcere (nom. sing); carcerem: (compl. sing) and carcerei (nom. plu), carceres (compl. plu)

English gate is translated by: cancello (nom. sing.), cancellum (compl. sing) and cancelloi (nom. plu), cancellos (compl. plu)

English End (final outcome) is translated by: fine (nom. sing.), finem (compl. sing) and fini (nom. plu), fines (compl. plu)

English border: confino (nom.sing.), confinum (compl.sing); confinoi (nom.plu) confinos (compl.plu).

 

In order to avoid ambiguity with the derivation from the Latin word mare, maris (sea) male noun term is translated into Eurizian as masko (nom. sing), maskum (compl. sing.), maskoi (nom. plu), maskos (compl. plu).  

Republic is translated as respublica (nom.sing.), respublicam (compl.sing.), respublicae (nom.plu.), respublicas (compl.plu.) ;

State (as institution) is translated by stato (nom.sing.),statum (compl.sing.), statoi (nom.plu), statos (compl. Plu.)

Rules for deriving nouns from Esperanto

 

Nouns that were produced by the evolution of civilisation after classical Roman times and therefore do not exist in Latin are obtained in Eurizian from the corresponding noun Esperanto. Thus, if the corresponding noun is not found in the English-Latin vocabulary, the English-Esperanto vocabulary is considered and the following procedure is applied.

We consider the noun Esperanto transliterated in the Eurizian alphabet according to the following transformation rules:

The noun obtained by transliteration, which always ends in -o, can be declined as a noun of the second Eurizian declension using the desinences as follows:

o for the singular nominative; -um for the singular complementative; -oi for the plural nominative and -os for the plural complementative.  Example follows.

English: fridge -> Esperanto: fridujo; root friduj- from which we obtain the noun declined according to the second Eurizian declension:

 Feminine nouns that in Esperanto end in -ino turn the termination in Eurizian into -ina. Example: Esperanto : doktorino (female doctor) -> Eurizian : doktorina  (first eurizian declension ).

 

Geographical names and place names

Nouns and adjectives referring to the nation are translated into Eurizian according to the following table-

To derive the noun indicating the inhabitant(s) of a state, proceed as follows:

we replace the final i of the adjective with the o for the masculine (we obtain a noun of the second declension of the Eurizian) and the a for the feminine (we obtain a noun of the first declension of the Eurizian). Example: from the Eurizian adjective “Italian” we obtain the nouns:

1) italiano, italianum, italianoi, italianos (Italian man), obtained by replacing the final i with the o;

2) italiana, italianam, italianae, italianas ( Italian woman), obtained by replacing the final i with the a.

Cardinal points are translated as follows:

North-> Norde ; South -> Sude , East -> Este;  West -> Oveste (nouns of the 3rd declension of the Eurizian declension)

From these derive the adjectives: Nordi (of the North), Sudi (of the South), Esti (of the East), Ovesti (of the West).

As for the names of the continents, the following applies:

Africa -> Africa (adjective: africani); America -> America (adjective: americani); Asia -> Asia (adjective: asiani); Europe-> Europe (adjective: europei); Oceania -> Oceania (adjective: oceaniani)

Arctic -> Artide (adjective: artidiani); Antarctica -> Antartide (adjective: antartidiani))

For all other place names not included in the Latin vocabulary and not included in this paragraph, reference should be made to the Esperanto dictionary with the rules of derivation seen in this paragraph.