THE ADJECTIVES

 General aspects

All adjectives can be grouped into the following classes:

  • qualifying;
  • possessive;
  • demonstrative;
  • indefinites;
  • interrogatives;
  • exclamations;
  • numerals.

In Eurizian, all adjectives have only one form and are invariable in number, gender and case and usually immediately precede the noun they refer to.

 

Qualifying adjectives

 General aspects

 

Most Eurizian qualifying adjectives are derived from the corresponding Latin qualifying adjectives modified according to precise rules. If the corresponding Latin qualifying adjective does not exist in Latin, the corresponding Esperanto word is considered and the Eurizian adjective is derived from it according to the rules laid down in this treatise.  In chapter B.3, all the rules of derivation for deriving Eurizian adjectives from the corresponding Latin and Esperanto adjective are explained. For each adjective, there is only one form valid for the singular and plural and also valid for all three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter) and for all cases (nominative and complementative). The qualifying adjective in Eurizian is thus invariable and always ends in -i.

 

The comparative degree

 

Comparative of equality: It is formed according to the following scheme:

 

  • tam + adjective + quam + second comparative term expressed in the complementative case.

Example: Mario est tam alti quam Marcum -> Mario is as tall as Mark.

 

Minority comparative: Formed according to the following scheme:

 

  • minus + adjective + quam + second comparative term expressed in the complementative case.

Example: Mario est minus alti quam Marcum -> Mario is less tall than Mark.

 

Majority comparative: Formed according to the following scheme:

 

  • magis + adjective + quam + second comparative term expressed in the complementative case

example: Mario est magis alti quam Marcum -> Mario is taller than Mark.

 

The reinforcing expressions of the comparative (much more,much less,a little more,a little less) are translated as:

much more -> multo magis;

much less -> multo minus;

a little more -> paulo magis;

a little less -> paulo minus;

The structure of the comparative as described also applies in the comparison of adjectives:

meblo essebat magis alti quam longi -> the furniture was taller than long.

 

The superlative degree

 

The absolute superlative is formed by preceding the adjective by multo or maxime (with a stronger valence). Examples:

very bautiful -> maxime pulchri or multo pulchri;

very tall -> maxime alti or multo alti.

 

The majority relative superlative (the highest or the most beautiful  ) is formed by introducing the adjective according to the scheme:

 

Lemagis + adjective + ex or inter + noun expressing the scope of comparison, expressed in the complementative case;

 

- the preposition ex is used when the noun expressing the scope of comparison is singular;

- the preposition inter is used when the noun expressing the field of comparison is plural.

 

example: Italy is the most beautiful nation in the world -> Italia est natione lemagis pulchri ex mundum.

 

The relative superlative of minority (the least) is formed by introducing the adjective according to the scheme:

 

Leminus + adjective + ex or inter + noun expressing the scope, expressed in the complementary case.

- the preposition ex is used when the noun expressing the scope is singular;

- the preposition inter is used when the noun expressing the scope is plural.

 

example: Karolo essebat leminus callidi inter discipulos -> Charles was the least astute of the pupils.

 

The reinforcer of the relative superlative is obtained by using longe (by far):

Marco est longe lemagis alti inter discipulos -> Marco is by far the tallest of the pupils.

 

Possessive Adjectives

 

Eurizian possessive adjectives have only one form valid for all genders (masculine feminine and neuter) and cases (nominative and complementative) and are invariant in number. They are as follows:

 

mei -> my .  Example: I give you my books -> ego dona mei libros ad te;

tui -> your.  Example: we knew your mother -> Nos noscevimus tui matrem;

sui -> his, her, their (reflexive form: used when referring to the third person subject whether singular or plural). Example: They sold their land (they is referred to them, i.e. the plural subject who sold) -> Ili vendevint sui agrum;

 

eius -> his, her (when referring to a third person singular other than the subject) and can be associated with singular and plural nouns. Example: she bought his land (the land of another person other than the subject she)-> Ea emevit eius agrum which corresponds to: she bought his (or her) land;

 

nostri -> our. Example: We have sold our house -> Nos vendevimus nostri domum;

vestri -> your. Example: I knew your parents -> Ego noscevi vestri parentes;

 

eorum ->  their (when referring to a third person plural other than the subject) and can be associated with both singular and plural nouns. Example:  He bought their house -> Is emevit eorum domum.

 

 Demonstrative Adjectives

 

The adjectives 'this', 'these', referring to something that is close to the speaker is translated as hoc, invariable, valid for all genders and cases in both the singular and plural.

 

Examples: this book is by the master -> Hoc libro est de magistrum;

 Tomorrow I will buy these flowers -> Cras ego emebi hoc flores.

 

The adjectives 'that', 'those' referring to something that is distant from the speaker is translated with the invariable illi, valid for all genders and all cases both singular and plural.

 

Examples:  That book is by the master -> Illi libro est de magistrum;

Tomorrow I will buy those flowers -> Cras ego emebi illi flores.

 

 To express 'this' in a derogatory sense  we use invariable isti, valid for all genders and cases in both the singular and plural.

Example: move this damn chair! -> Amoves isti sellam!     

  

The adjective 'same' is translated as idem invariable, valid for all genders and all cases both singular and plural. Idem in comparative sentences has the second comparative term placed at the complementative and introduced by quam.

Example: He has the same face as his father -> Is habet idem faciem quam sui patrem.

 

The reinforcer himself, herself, itself is translated as ipsi, an invariable valid for all genders and all cases both singular and plural.

 

Example: The President of the Republic himself will reward her -> Ipsi Prezidanto de Respublicam praemiabit eam.

Indefinite Adjectives

 

Even the indefinite adjectives of Eurizian are invariant for gender, number and case. Below you can find the corresponding translation in Eurizian for each indefinite adjective.

 

Adjectives indicating quantity

English Eurizian
Little, few pauci
As many totidem
A lot of tanti
Much , many multi
Too much, too many nimii

Examples:

I have little hope of seeing my friend Anna again -> ego habe pauci spem de revisendo mei amicam Annam.

I have bought seven shoes and as many socks -> ego emevi septem calceos et totidem caligas.

They have a lot of red cats -> ili habent tanti rubri feles.

Marco has bought many history books -> Marco emevit multi libros de historiam;

We had too much patience -> nos habevimus nimii patientiam.

 

To obtain the superlative form of the adjectives little, few,much and many  in Eurizian, maxime is placed before the adjective:

 

very little, very few-> maxime pauci;

so much, so many-> maxime tanti; maxime multi

 

Adjectives indicating totality

English Eurizian
All omni
Whole, entire cuncti
Both, Either utrique (plural only)
no nulli

Examples:

she ate all the bread  -> Ea edevit omni panem;

we shall clean the whole house -> Nos mundabimus cuncti domum;

I repaired both socks -> Ego reparavi utrique caligas;

I saw no book -> Ego videvi nulli librum

 

Adjectives indicating unity or indefinite multiplicity

English Eurizian
Each, every quisqui
Some aliqui
Certain quidam
Other alii
Most of plerique
The remaining ceteri

Examples:

each pupil will be given a mathematics book -> une libro de mathematicam essebit donati ad quisqui discipulum.

- They withdrew some car models from the market > oni retrahevit aliqui exemplares de automobilos a commercium.

the judges sentenced him without any evidence -> Iudicei damnavint eum sine aliqui probationem.

I saw a certain farmer in the middle of the field -> ego videvi quidam agricolam in medio de agrum.

He placed the other books on the table -> pones alii libros super tabulam.

Most of the spectators enjoyed the spectacle -> plerique spectatores probavint spectaculum.

The workers take away the remaining crates -> operarioi auferent ceteri capsas

 

Aliqui is also used to express the partitive (some ); in this case it is used postposed to the noun to which it refers:

I would like some water, please -> Ego volere aquam aliqui, benigne.

 

Adjectives indicating quality

English Eurizian
Any quivis, quilibet

For this work any workman will do -> quivis operario est boni ad hoc operam.

He for that painting would pay any price -> Is expenderet quivis pretium ad illi pentrajum

 

Interrogative and exclamatory adjectives

 For each interrogative adjective, the Eurizian translation is given.

English Eurizian
Which quali, quae
How much, how many quoti
Which ( between two) utri

All interrogative adjectives in Eurizian are invariant in gender, number and case

Examples:

Which flowers do you prefer?  -> Quae flores tu praeferes?

Which flowers do you prefer? -> Which flores tu praeferes?

How much paper do you need? -> quoti chartam tu eges?

Which of the two brothers is blond? -> Utri fratre est fulvi?

 

The same adjectives, except utri, can be used as exclamatory adjectives:

example:

quae sole! -> quae sole!

How much joy you have brought into this house!

Quoti laetitiam tu ferevis in hoc domum!

 

Adjectives and numeral adverbs

Cardinal and ordinal numbers in Eurizian are translated as follows.

Fractions are indicated with numeral followed by ordinal. Example:

5/6 five sixths -> quinque sexti

Percentages are expressed by the numeral followed by the expression 'pro centum'. Example:

Twenty-five per cent: viginti quinque pro centum. For arithmetic operations the following applies:

+ -> plus ; - -> minus ; x -> per ; : -> divisus; = -> aequalis.

Mathematical power is expressed by the numeral followed by ad followed by the ordinal. Example:

ten to the second -> decem ad secundi.