THE PRONOUNS

Personal pronouns

Personal pronouns have two forms: one for pronouns with subject function (nominative), one for pronouns with complement function (complementative), which is used for direct complement and indirect compliments introduced by preposition.

 

Oni is used as a third person impersonal subject referring to a person, in analogy with the use of the French 'On'.   Example: one must always tell the truth -> oni debet semper dicere veritatem.

Reciprocal action is expressed with the adverb invicem (reciprocally).

Example: we help each other -> nos adiuvamus nes invicem.

Demonstrative Pronouns

 

Each Eurizian demonstrative pronoun has two forms: one for masculine and neuter and one for feminine.  The two forms are declined according to number (singular, plural) and case (nominative and complementative).

 

English pronouns “this” and “these”, referring to a person or thing close to the speaker, are translated into Eurizian  for masculine and neuter as:

Case Singular Plural
Nominative hoc hoic
Complementative hunc hos

For feminine

Case Singular Plural
Nominative hac haec
Complementative hanc has

Example:  I love books very much, but I hate this -> Ego ama multo libros, sed ego detesta hunc

The expression 'this thing' is translated with the neuter huc in all cases.

 

English pronouns “that” and “those”, referring to a person or thing away from the speaker, are translated into Eurizian for masculine and neuter  as:

Case Singular Plural
Nominativo illo illoi
Complementativo illum illos

For feminine

Case Singular Plural
Nominative illa illae
Complementative illam illas

Example: I love flowers very much, but I detest the smell of those one -> ego ama multo flores, sed ego detesta odorem de illas.

The expression 'that thing' is translated with the neuter illud in all cases.

 

Possessive pronouns

The pronominal form of possessives is obtained by using the demonstrative pronoun illo, illa followed by the appropriate possessive adjective. The pronoun illo is declined in the case corresponding to the logical function performed by the pronoun itself. Example:

 

I cannot find my notebook -> Ego non inveni mei quaternum

You can take mine if you want -> Tu posses capere illum mei, si tu voles.

 

By way of example, the complete declension of the pronoun mine is given below.

 

Masculine and neuter

Case Singular Plural
Nominative illo mei illoi mei
Complementative illum mei illos mei

Feminine

Case Singular Plural
Nominative illa mei illae mei
Complementative illam mei illas mei

Interrogative Pronouns

Quis? (who?): is used only as a pronoun referring to a male or female person, for all cases (nominative , complementative) and is used only in the singular.

 

Examples:

Who rang the door? -> Quis sonavit ad ianuam?

Who are you looking for? -> Quis vos estis qaerenti?

 

Quid? (what?): is used only as a pronoun referring to thing, for all cases (nominative and complementative) and is used only in the singular.

 

Examples:

What is troubling you? -> Quid sollicitat te?

What are you looking for? -> Quid vos estis quaerenti?

 

When acting as indirect complements, these pronouns are used with the appropriate prepositions.

Example: Whose book is this? -> Des quis est hoc libro?

 

The pronoun/adjective which of the two? is translated as uter and is used only in the singular, referring to a male or female person or thing, for all cases (nominative, complementative).

Example: Here are Mario and Marco; which of the two is the teacher's brother? -> Ecce Marco et Mario; uter est fratre de magistrum?

 

The pronoun which one? is translated as qualis? Which is used for all three genders, plural and singular and for all cases (nominative, complementative).

Example: Here are all my history books; which one do you want? -> Ecce omni mei libroi de historia; qualis tu voles?

 

Other interrogative pronouns:

Who ever? Translated with Quisnam, which is used for masculine, and feminine for all cases in the singular only

What on earth? Is translated by Quidnam, which is used for thing , for all cases only in the singular

Example: Who would ever say such a thing? Quisnam diceret une simili rem?

 

Indefinite Pronouns

The indefinite pronoun someone for masculine and neuter is translated as

Case Singular Plural
Nominative Aliquo Aliquoi
Complementative Aliqum Aliquos

While the corresponding feminine pronoun  is translated as:

Case Singular Plural
Nominative Aliqua Aliquae
Complementative Aliquam Aliquas

Example: I saw the roses in your garden; some are very beautiful -> ego vidi rosas de tui viridarium; aliquae sunt maxime pulchri.

The term something (used only in the singular) is translated as aliquid, a neutral form valid for all cases.

 

The indefinite pronoun the other, the others, for masculine and neuter is translated as:

Case Singular Plural
Nominative Alio Alioi
Complementative Alium Alios

While the corresponding feminine pronoun  is translated as:

Case Singular Plural
Nominative Alia Aliae
Complementative Aliam Alias

Example: Our books are the green ones; the yellow and red ones belong to others-> Nostri libri sunt illoi viridi; illoi gilvi et rubri sunt de alios.

the expression 'other thing' (used only in the singular) is translated by aliud, a form valid for all cases.

 

The indefinite pronoun each one, everyone which is only used in the singular form, is translated as

Case Singular Plural
Nominative Quisque -----------
Complementative Quemque ------------

Example: Everyone is the author of his own destiny -> Quisque est artifice de sui sortem.

The expression each thing (used only in the singular) is translated as quidque, a neutral form valid for all cases.

 

The pronoun one, such a one, ifor maxuline and neuter s translated with:

Case Singular Plural
Nominative Uno Unoi
Complementative Unum Unos

While the corresponding feminine pronoun  is translated as:

Case Singular Plural
Nominative Una Unae
Complementative Unam Unas

Example: I saw one reading the newspaper in the bar-> Ego vidi unum qui legebat ephemeridem in barum.

 

The pronoun both (used only in plural form) for masculine,feminine and neuter  translates as:

Case Singular Plural
Nominative ------- Utrioque
Complementative ------- Utrosque

Example: I invited them both -> ego invitavi utrosque

 

The pronoun the rest, the remaining , all others is translated as :

Case Singular Plural
Nominative Cetero Ceteroi
Complementative Ceterum Ceteros

Example: I kept only part of the books; the rest I threw away -> Ego servavi solum partem de libros; ego iacevi ceteros.

 

The pronoun everybody, everyone, everything   translates as

Case Singular Plural
Nominative Omne Omnei
Complementative Omnem Omnes

Example: Everyone needs love -> Omnei indigent amorem.

The expression 'all things' is translated as omnia for all cases and used only in the plural form.

 

The pronoun much, many is translated as:

Case Singular Plural
Nominative Multo Multoi
Complementative Multum Multos

Example: many think only of money -> Multoi cogitant solum pecuniam

 

The pronoun little and few translate as:

Case Singular Plural
Nominative Pauco Paucoi
Complementative Paucum Paucos

Example: they chose a few -> Oni deligevit pucos

 

The pronoun nobody, no one (masculine and feminine, used only in the singular) is translated by

Case Singular Plural
Nominative Nemo ----------
Complementative Neminem ---------

The pronoun nothing (neuter, for all cases, used only in the singular form), is translated as

Case Singular Plural
Nominative Nihil ----------
Complementative Nihil ---------

Please note that in Eurizian you cannot use two negations referring to the same predicate, so nihil and nemo can only be used in sentences in positive form. Example:

 

I saw no one in your house -> Ego videvi neminem in tui domum

You lost nothing while walking -> Tu amittevis nihil dum tu ambulabas

 

Relative Pronouns

 

Definite relative pronouns

The definite relative pronouns (who, whom, that,  which, whose) in Eurizian take the following forms:

Case Singular Plural
Nominative Qui Qui
Complementative Quem Quem

Example: The book you see is mine -> Libro quem tu vides est illo mei.

When acting as indirect complements, these pronouns are used in the complementative case with the appropriate prepositions. Example:

Amico des Marcum, des quem fidelitate est noti al omnes, dicevit veritatem-> Marco's friend, whose loyalty is known to all, has told the truth

 

Indefinite relative pronouns

The pronoun anyone, anybody, whoever(used only in the singular) is translated as:

Case Singular Plural
Nominative Quicumque -----------
Complementative Quemcumque -----------

When a pronoun links two periods, it must always be associated with the correct relative pronoun.

Example: ego dabi id ad quemcumque qui quarebit id -> I will give it to anyone who asks for it

N.B: Indefinite relative pronouns always take the indicative mode:

quicumque est -> whoever is

Whatever (anything)  is translated as quidcumque in all cases.