THE SUBSTANTIVE

General aspects

 

Most Eurizian nouns are derived from the corresponding Latin nouns, while terms developed after Roman times are taken from Esperanto. The Eurizian words are obtained from the corresponding Latin or Esperanto terms by means of precise rules of derivation that are amply illustrated in  https://www.euriziano.eu/vocabolario/ of this site. As far as gender is concerned, in Eurizian nouns are divided into three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter and, unlike Latin and Esperanto, the following rules apply, which do not allow for any exceptions:

 

1) All proper or common names referring to male persons or animals are masculine;

2) All proper or common nouns referring to female persons or animals, flowers and plants are feminine;

3) All names of inanimate entities and objects (both concrete and abstract) and all those that do not fall under categories 1 and 2 are neuter.

 

As far as number is concerned, the noun can be singular or plural.

Unlike Latin and Esperanto, the highly simplified inflection theory applies to the Eurizian noun. There are only two cases: nominative case, to be used for the subject, vocative and nominal predicate, and complementative case to be used to express complements. In particular, the object complement (i.e. direct) is expressed using the complementative case without prepositions, while each indirect complement is formed with the complementative preceded by the specific preposition of the particular complement. Each noun thus has only four forms: nominative singular, nominative plural, complementative singular and complementative plural. As in Latin, the determinative article does not exist in the Eurizian language. Examples: lupo corresponds to 'the wolf' (singular subject); rosam corresponds to 'the rose' (singular object complement); lupos corresponds to 'the wolves' (plural object complement), rosae corresponds to 'the roses' (plural subject).  In contrast to Latin, in Eurizian there is the indeterminative article: une, which is valid for all three genders and precedes the noun expressed in the case corresponding to the logical function performed, as given in the following examples: une rosa corresponds to 'a rose' (subject); une lupum corresponds to 'a wolf' (object complement). The correspondent of the Latin vocative is obtained in the written form using the nominative followed by the exclamation mark.

 

 Eurizian Declensions

 

Based on the nominative ending, all nouns in the Eurysian language can be classified into three groups, each of which declines according to a pattern that admits no exceptions. The three groups are:

 

- nouns that at the nominative end in -a -> first declension;

- nouns that at the nominative end in -o -> second declension;

- nouns that at the nominative end in -e-> third declension.

 

Nouns ending in -a at the nominative (first declension)

 They are all declined like the noun rosa (english: rose) , according to the following scheme:

Singular Plural
Nominative rosa rosae
Complementative rosam rosas

Let's see with a practical example how a Eurizian noun of the first declension is declined.

 

The dictionary always lists the noun in the nominative singular. If we look in an English -Eurizian dictionary to see how to say rose, we find: "rose, noun rosa, f.".  We then start declining the noun from the singular nominative: rosa. From the nominative rosa, we obtain the noun root ros- by removing the ending a. From the root ros- we obtain:

 

- the plural nominative rosae, by adding the ending -ae to the root ros- ;

- the complementative singular rosam , by adding the ending -am to the root ros-;

- the complementative plural rosas , adding the ending -as to the root ros-.

 

Let us see some examples of the application of declension in the translation of sentences.

 

Nominative singular: The rose is the most beautiful flower -> Rosa est flore lemagis pulchri.

Nominative plural: roses perfume -> Rosae olent bene.

Complementative singular: Marco gave Anna a red rose -> Marco donavit une rubri rosam ad Annam.

Complementative plural: Anna adorned her garden with white roses -> Anna ornabat sui hortum cum albi rosas.

 

Nouns ending in -o in the nominative (Second declension)

They are all declined like the noun lupo ( English: wolf,)  according to the following scheme:

Singolare Plurale
Nominativo lupo lupoi
Accusativo lupum lupos

Let us see with a practical example how a Eurizian noun of the second declension is declined.

The dictionary always reports the noun in the nominative singular. If we look in an English -Eurizian dictionary to see how to say wolf, we find: "wolf, noun lupo, m.".  We then start declining the noun from the nominative singular: lupo. From the nominative lupo, we obtain the noun root lup- by removing the ending o. From the root lup- we obtain:

 

- the nominative plural lupoi, by adding the ending -oi to the root lup- ;

- the complementative singular lupum , by adding the ending -um to the root lup-;

- the complementative plural lupos , adding the ending -os to the root lup-.

 

Let us see some examples of the application of declension in the translation of sentences.

 

Nominative singular: The wolf is a wild animal-> Lupo est feri animale.

Nominative plural: Wolves live in the woods -> Lupoi vivent in silvas.

Complementative singular: Men fear the wolf-> Hominei timent lupum.

Complementative plural: Lucius was attacked by wolves-> Lucius essevit aggredeti a lupos

 

Nouns ending in -e in the nominative (Third declension)

They are all declined like the noun leone ( English: lion) , according to the following scheme:

Singular Plural
Nominative leone leonei
Accusative leonem leones

Let us see with a practical example how a Eurizian noun of the third declension is declined.

 

The dictionary always reports the noun in the nominative singular. If we look in an Italian-Eurian dictionary to see how to say lion, we find: "lion, noun, leone m.".  We then start declining the noun from the nominative singular: leone. From the nominative leone, we obtain the noun root leon- by removing the ending e. From the root leon- we obtain:

 

- the nominative plural leonei by adding the ending -ei to the root leon- ;

- the complementative singular leonem , by adding the ending -em to the root leon-;

- the complementative plural leones , adding the ending -es to the root leon-.

 

Let us see some examples of the application of declension in the translation of sentences.

 

Nominative singular: Lion is considered the king of animals-> Leone est reputati rege de animales.

Nominative plural: Lions live in the savannah -> Leonei vivent in savanum.

Complementative singular: Men fear the lion-> Hominei timent leonem.

Complementative plural: The gazelle managed to escape from the lions -> Dorcade possevit evadere e leones