THE VERB

General aspects of verb conjugation

 

In Eurizian, all verbs in the infinitive end in -RE and there is only one verbal conjugation. There are no irregular verbs, with the exception of the verb ESSÈRE (TO BE) whose conjugation differs from the regular conjugation only  for the indicative present. The subject of the verb must always be expressed, except in cases where the verb is in the imperative or in exhortative form. In the latter two cases, the subject may be omitted. The subject always precedes the verb and can only be separated from the verb by either a negation or an adverb. ESSERE (TO BE) is the only verb that acts as an auxiliary. It is in fact used to form the compound tenses of the passive form of transitive verbs. Let's see how to use the modes and tenses of verbs.

 

Indicative Mode: it is a finite verbal mode and expresses the certainty of the occurrence of a fact or an action. It consists of the following tenses:

 

  • present indicative: indicates an action or situation taking place at the time of speaking; it corresponds to the English present indicative;
  • imperfect indicative: indicates an action that takes place in the past with respect to the moment of speaking or writing or a possible condition in the hypothetical period of possibility. In English it can correspond to the simple past (habitual action) or the progressive past (action in progress).
  • perfect indicative: indicates an action performed in the past with respect to the moment in which one is speaking or writing . In English it corresponds to the simple past
  • future indicative: indicates an action that has yet to take place with respect to the moment in which one speaks. In English it corresponds to the future indicative
  • future perfect indicative: indicates events, experiences and facts considered as completed, but which are in the future. In English it corresponds to the future perfect.

 

Conditional Mode: This is mainly used to indicate an event or situation that takes place only if a certain condition is fulfilled. It consists of the following tenses:

 

  • present conditional: used to describe situations and habits subordinate to a certain condition; it corresponds to the English present conditional;
  • past conditional: used to describe situations and events considered only as potential and subordinate to a condition. ; it corresponds to the English past conditional;

 

Exhortative and imperative mode: it expresses an exhortation or a command.

 

Progressive Mode: indicates an action while taking place in the present or in the past or in the future;

 

Imminent Mode: indicates an action that is about to be performed or is intended to be performed in the present or in the past or in the future.

 

Infinitive Mode: is used in objective propositions;

 

Participial mode: is used to form compound tenses:

 

  • present participle -> in used to form the progressive mode tenses;
  • past participle -> in used to form the compound tenses of the passive form;
  • future participle -> in used to form Imminent mode tenses.

 

Gerund Mode: used to express the nominal form of the verb.

Verb conjugation rules

 

In order to conjugate verbs (all of which end in -RE), it is first necessary to identify the root from the infinitive by removing the termination in -RE. For example, the root of the verb AMARE (TO LOVE)  is AMA- . Once the root has been identified, the verbs are conjugated as described below.

 

INDICATIVE AND CONDITIONAL MODES - ACTIVE CONJUGATION: The root is isolated, the time-specific temporal suffix is added (for all tenses except the present tense) and completed by joining to the root (for the present tense) or to the suffix (for all other tenses) the appropriate ending relative to the person.

CONJUGATION = ROOT+ SUFFIX+ DESINENCE

 

SUFFIX

These are characteristic elements that univocally identify the tense to be conjugated according to the following scheme:

DESINENCES

 

All the tenses of the indicative and the conditional mode have the same endings that uniquely identify persons, according to the following scheme:

 

1st singular person: - none;

2nd singular person:  -s;

3rd singular person: -t;

1st plural person: -mus;

2nd plural person: -tis;

3rd plural person: -nt

 

INDICATIVE AND CONDITIONAL TENSES - PASSIVE CONJUGATION:

 

The passive form of any tense of the indicative and conditional mode is obtained by adding the past participle to the verb to be expressed in that tense. Example:

 

passive imperfect indicative of the verb X  -> Imperfect indicative of the verb ESSERE (TO BE)  + past participle of the verb X:

 

We were loved -> Nos essebamus amati

 

PROGRESSIVE MODE: the progressive verbal form of a certain tense (Present, Future or Imperfect) is obtained by adding to the verb to be at the same tense indicative the present participle of the verb to be conjugated.

Present progressive  of the verb X -> Present indicative of the verb Essere (TO BE) + present participle of the verb X. Exemple:

Tu es loquenti -> You are talking.

Past progressive of the verb X -> Imperfect indicative of the verb ESSERE (TO BE) + present participle of the verb X. Exemple:

 tu essebas loquenti ->  you were talking

 Future progressive of the verb X -> Future indicative of the verb ESSERE (TO BE) + present participle of the verb X. Exemple:

 tu essebis loquenti -> you will be talking

 

IMMINENT MODE: the imminent verbal form of a certain tense (Present, Future or Imperfect) is obtained by adding to the verb ESSERE (TO BE) at the same tense the future participle of the verb to be conjugated. Example:

Present imminent of the verb X -> Present indicative of the verb ESSERE (TO BE)  + future participle of the verb X

you are going to talk (or you are about to talk) > tu es loquituri.

Past imminent of the verb X -> Imperfect  indicative of the verb ESSERE (TO BE)  + future participle of the verb X

you were going to talk (or you were about to talk)  > tu essebas loquituri

Future imminent of the verb X ->Future   indicative of the verb ESSERE (TO BE)  + future participle of the verb X

you will be  going to talk or you will be  about to talk-> tu essebis loquituri

 

EXORTATIVE OR IMPERATIVE MODE: The exhortative or imperative verbal form is obtained in the following way.

2nd person singular: verbal root +S

2nd person plural: verbal root +TE

1st person plural: verbal root +MUS

3rd person singular and plural: ke + subject +present indicative

 

INFINITIVE MODE

The present infinitive is the basic form from which the root from which the whole conjugation of the verb is obtained.

The past infinitive is obtained by adding the suffix -VISSE to the verbal root.

The future infinitive is obtained by adding the suffix - TURI to the verbal root.

 

GERUND MODE

The gerund verb is formed by adding the ending -NDO to the verbal root. The gerund is also formed from the adjectival form by replacing the final o with i. Example:

AMARE -> AMANDO -> AMANDI meaning 'to love'.

Tyrrheno est une amandi mare -> Tyrrhenian is a sea to be loved.

 

PLEASE NOTE: “Mark, asking his brother for help, solved all the problems” translates as:

Marco, roganti auxilium ad sui fratrem, solvevit omnes quaestiones

 

In the next two paragraphs, summary diagrams of the Eurizian conjugation are shown

  • for the verb ESSÈRE (TO BE) ,as the only verb with irregular conjugation;

‚óŹ for the verb AMARE (TO LOVE)  as a valid conjugation example for all Eurizian verbs.

Verbs with a particular construction

 

As in English  and Latin, there are also verbs in Eurizian that are called impersonal because their action cannot refer to a specific person. In the indicative et conditional mode they are only used in the third person singular. These are verbs that indicate atmospheric or natural phenomena:

 

fulgere, fulgurare -> to be flashing;

fulminare -> to be lightening;

grandinare-> to hail;

lucescere -> to get light;

ningere -> to snow;

nubilare -> to get cloudy;

pluere -> to rain;

tonare-> to thunder;

vesperare-> toget dark;

advesperare-> to get evening;

disserenare -> to clear;

 

these verbs, conjugated in the third person, always require id as subject:

hodie id pluet -> today it is raining

 

pluere can also be used as transitive in the figurative sense (subject in third person, verb, direct complement in complementative). Example: it is raining stones-> id pluet saxos.

 

Some verbs indicating a feeling of the soul, in particular:

 

miserere -> to pity; paenitere -> to repent; pigere -> to regret; pudere -> to be ashamed;

taedere -> to be bored

 

contrary to Latin, in Eurizian have the following personal construction:

person who feels the sentiment (subject always expressed in the nominative) - verb in the person corresponding to the subject - preposition ob - thing that determines the sentiment expressed in the complementative.

example: multoi non pudent ob sui infamiam -> many are not ashamed of their infamy.

 

The verbs: fallere, fugere, latere -> to escape; iuvare ->to benefit; delectare -> to delight; decere -> to suit; dedecere -> not to  suit.

 

The construction for these verbs is as follows:

 

subject (nominative) - verb conjugated in the person corresponding to the subject - person with whom the subject is related expressed in the complementative case

 example:

Ira non decet regem -> Wrath does not suit the king

 

PLEASE NOTE: All verbs that in Latin are intransitive and have either the dative or the genitive case, in Eurizian become transitive and have the complementative without preposition.

 

Negative form

 

The negative form of the sentence is always formed by placing the adverb 'not' in front of the verb.

Example: I am not coming with you -> Ego non veni cum te.

 

The only exception to this rule is the imperative for which the negative form is obtained by prefixing the expressions noli or nolite to the infinitive. In particular:

 

  • noli is used for the second person singular;
  • nolite for the second person plural.

 

examples: don't read -> noli legére; don't read -> nolite legére.

 

No longer is translated as non ....amplius

Exemple: I no longer hope to see you -> Ego non spera amplius me videre te

 

Never is translated by numquam always placed before the verb.

Example: I never said that -> Ego numquam dicevi huc